The US Dollar (USD) is easing a bit on Friday under some profit taking after its gains this week, while traders are hearing signals out of Washington on the debt ceiling debate and a slew of US data is set to hit the wires this Friday. The US debt ceiling keeps making headlines, with more details being released about a possible deal, although an agreement this week looks almost close to impossible. US President Joe Biden gave more details on Thursday night about the talks and reiterated that there will be no default on his watch.
On the macroeconomic data front, a big batch of important data is about to hit the markets. At 12:30 GMT, the Fed’s preferred inflation metric is being published – the Personal Consumption Expenditure (PCE) inflation numbers, both core and overall for monthly and yearly performances. These numbers have the potential to shift market expectations for the next Federal Reserve interest rate decision in June and July, thus being an important market-mover for US Dollar traders.
Personal Spending and Income figures, together with Durable Goods Orders and Inventories data, will be hitting the wires at that same time. To close off the batch of macroeconomic data for the US, the University of Michigan is set to issue its May Final reading for Consumer Sentiment and Inflation Expectations. These numbers could help round-up moves on US Dollar, Treasury yields and other assets.
The US Dollar Index (DXY) has taken out both the 55-day and the 100-day Simple Moving Averages (SMA), respectively, at 102.43 and 102.85 on the upside. The US Dollar safe-haven status keeps seeing bids for the DXY, with 104 having been broken early on Thursday and now eases a touch as a debt-ceiling deal takes some shape.
On the upside, 105.73 (200-day SMA) still acts as long-term price target to hit, as the next upside key level for the US Dollar Index is at 104.00 (psychological, static level), and acts as an intermediary element to cross the open space.
On the downside, 102.85 (100-day SMA) aligns as the first support level to confirm a change of trend. In the case that breaks down, watch how the DXY reacts at the 55-day SMA at 102.48 in order to assess any further downturn or upturn.
Monetary policy in the US is shaped by the Federal Reserve (Fed). The Fed has two mandates: to achieve price stability and foster full employment. Its primary tool to achieve these goals is by adjusting interest rates.
When prices are rising too quickly and inflation is above the Fed’s 2% target, it raises interest rates, increasing borrowing costs throughout the economy. This results in a stronger US Dollar (USD) as it makes the US a more attractive place for international investors to park their money.
When inflation falls below 2% or the Unemployment Rate is too high, the Fed may lower interest rates to encourage borrowing, which weighs on the Greenback.
The Federal Reserve (Fed) holds eight policy meetings a year, where the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC) assesses economic conditions and makes monetary policy decisions.
The FOMC is attended by twelve Fed officials – the seven members of the Board of Governors, the president of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, and four of the remaining eleven regional Reserve Bank presidents, who serve one-year terms on a rotating basis.
In extreme situations, the Federal Reserve may resort to a policy named Quantitative Easing (QE). QE is the process by which the Fed substantially increases the flow of credit in a stuck financial system.
It is a non-standard policy measure used during crises or when inflation is extremely low. It was the Fed’s weapon of choice during the Great Financial Crisis in 2008. It involves the Fed printing more Dollars and using them to buy high grade bonds from financial institutions. QE usually weakens the US Dollar.
Quantitative tightening (QT) is the reverse process of QE, whereby the Federal Reserve stops buying bonds from financial institutions and does not reinvest the principal from the bonds it holds maturing, to purchase new bonds. It is usually positive for the value of the US Dollar.